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lee kuan yew school of public policy facebook

lee kuan yew school of public policy facebook

Consumptive use – that part of water withdrawn that is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment.Consumptive-use values may be calculated by subtracting return flow and conveyance losses from withdrawals. Drew Thompson Visiting Senior Research Fellow at National University of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and Senior Research Scientist at CNA Corporation. The Great Lakes Commission reports the data for each state and for the basin of each Great Lake. Based on the number of persons served by public watersupply facilities in 2004, approximately 2.9 million people – almost 29 percent of the population – relied upon private domestic wells. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The distinction is important because estimates of water demand for certain uses may be inaccurate if they are generated using data on water withdrawn and distributed by public water supplies rather than water actually used by those being served. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). Of these, 44 had the withdrawal capacity requiring them to report water use for 2004. Source: Hutson et al., 2004 and Solley, Pierce & Perlman, 1998. However, calculating consumptive use is challenging because information on return flows and conveyance losses is required but difficult to obtain. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. The primary source of water (almost 77 percent) for public supply was the Great Lakes, although Great Lakes water was withdrawn for public supply in only 34 of Michigan’s 83 counties. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning for economic development, land use and ecosystem protection. - Prof. Teo Yik Ying, Dean, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, NUS - Prof. Tikki Pangestu, Visiting Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, NUS - Assoc. Industrial water use refers to self-supplied withdrawals of water for industrial processing, washing, cooling and other purposes. National University of Singapore. Thus, estimates of domestic withdrawals are likely too low. The MDEQ reported that 1,437 community public water supply systems withdrew water to serve 7.2 million persons (more than 71 percent of Michigan’s population) in 2004. Mayer, P.W., DeOreo, W.B., Opitz, E.M., Kiefer, J.C., Davis, W.Y., Dziegielewski, B., & Nelson, J.O. It's an incredible honour for us to announce that our MPA alumnus, Ibrahim Shaheeb, has won over 58 votes from the # parliament MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Pipe leak detection technology development. Table 1. For 2004, 619 irrigated golf courses were registered in the Michigan Water Use Reporting Program (MDEQ, n.d. 2). 2004 water withdrawals for golf course irrigation in Michigan, by county. Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., & Perlman, H.A. In fact, the single category of thermoelectric power users accounted for the largest percentage of total water withdrawn (almost 80 percent) in Michigan (Figure 2). U.S. Census. Examples of indoor uses are drinking water, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and flushing toilets. The MDEQ does not collect or report information about domestic water use. To the extent that withdrawals are neither reported by a state nor estimated by the USGS (as domestic withdrawals are), total water use reported by the NWUIP is subject to the same uncertainties and potential errors described above. The distinction between withdrawals and use is significant in some cases, but that distinction is often lost when the terms are used. Moderator: However, irrigation has the highest consumptive-use coefficient (90 percent) and, as a result, is the sector that results in the largest total consumptive use. 1990 census of population and housing. Water use in areas where private domestic wells predominate may include more withdrawals for watering lawn and flower gardens, washing automobiles and filling swimming pools than are observed in metropolitan areas. Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/ documents/deq-wd-wurp-report04.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). In general, a water user withdrawing surface or ground water is not required to report withdrawals if withdrawal capacity is less than 100,000 GPD averaged over any consecutive 30-day period. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. … 3 www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. This data is presented on a percentage of total basis in Figures 1 and 2. Distinguishing between withdrawal and use may also be important for understanding the impact of withdrawals on hydrologic systems. The Great Lakes−St. Shaffer and Runkle completed a comprehensive review of consumptive-use coefficients reported in the literature for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas. Even before the changes to Michigan’s water law, the MDEQ compiled and reported water withdrawals by thermoelectric power plants, self-supplied industries, irrigators and public water supply systems. Ground water accounts for just less than 22 percent of withdrawals for public supply; the remaining 1.5 percent is from inland lakes and streams. Total water withdrawn for public supply uses was 1,144.3 MGD (Table 2) or about 10.2 percent of total water withdrawn by all sectors. (n.d. 2). Because domestic users are not required to report withdrawals in Michigan, the USGS uses data on public supply withdrawals and population to estimate domestic use for Michigan. Total water use in Michigan during 2004 was 11,198.6 MGD or almost 4.1 trillion total gallons for the year. The authors would like to thank Andrew Lebaron (MDEQ), Carol Luukkonen (USGS) and Ruth KlineRobach (MSUE) for their review of this bulletin. The MDEQ reported water withdrawals in 2004 for four broad categories: public supply, irrigation, industrial use and thermoelectric power generation. But the number of residents served by public water supplies is based on the number of residential connections reported by public water systems multiplied by an estimate of persons per household. In 2000, according to the USGS report, Michigan was second only to California in the number of residents relying upon private wells in the nation (Hutson et al., 2004)4. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) maintains this inventory for specific categories of water users through its Water Use Reporting Program. The MDEQ reported that public water suppliers supported 7.2 million persons in 2004 (MDEQ, 2006). Patricia E. Norris is the Guyer-Seevers Chair in Natural Resource Conservation; Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies; Michigan State University. pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). The NWUIP generates comprehensive national, state and county water-use reports every five years. However, this does not mean that 1,121,066 private residential wells were used in 1990, since the Census included in this count those cases where up to four separate housing units were using the same well (U.S. Census, 1990). The Great Lakes–St. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Water withdrawals for major water uses in Michigan 2004. 444K likes. Welcome to the noncommunity water supply site. Return flow – water that reaches a groundwater or surface water source after release from the point of use and thus becomes available for further use. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Council adopted a set of interim reporting protocols to help ensure that all Great Lakes states apply a common and consistent process for collecting water withdrawal information.6 The protocol specifies the water-use sectors for which withdrawal data will be reported and the information to be collected. Table 2. Maintaining accurate information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. On the one hand, the study from which the per capita use coefficient was adapted measured water use primarily in metropolitan areas. Figure 1. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. A considerable amount of water withdrawn by public water supply systems does not reach end users. Applying the median values of consumptive-use coefficients shown in Table 1 to total withdrawals, total consumptive use by sector was estimated for 2004 withdrawals (Table 3). The remaining population (2.9 million persons1 ) is presumed to be served by private domestic wells. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. In some cases, a power plant may use a combination of cooling systems for the same generating unit” (MDEQ, n.d. 4). In particular, estimates of consumptive use (defined in Box 1) convey how much of the water withdrawn is returned to its source and how much is removed to another watershed. Agricultural irrigators with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD may report to the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) or to the MDEQ. 454K likes. Groundwater supplied most irrigation for both agriculture and golf courses (64 percent); inland lakes and streams provided almost 34 percent of irrigation water. Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpIndustrial04.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). Consumptive-use coefficients are smallest for thermoelectric power plants, many of which return cooling water to a surface water source with very little evaporation in the process. Irrigation water withdrawals were estimated based on the 452,800 irrigated acres and 1,568 irrigators in Michigan reported in the 2002 Census of Agriculture (MDEQ, n.d. 1). 444K likes. Finally, we present water withdrawal data for Michigan for 2004. Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpAgriculture2004.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). National University of Singapore. Table 3. (U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344). Retrieved from www.census.gov/popest/states/NSTann-est.html, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). National and state population estimates, annual population estimates 2000-2009. 1 The most recent U.S. Census estimate of Michigan’s 2004 population, reported in 2008, was 10,090,280 (U.S. Census, 2009). A lack of reliable data on the number of residential wells in Michigan and the number of people served by these wells further complicates estimating domestic withdrawals accurately. These coefficients indicate “the percentage of water removed from the immediate environment by evaporation, transpiration, incorporation into products or crops, or consumption by humans or livestock” (Shaffer & Runkle, 2007). 469C Bukit Timah Road. This represents about a five percent increase from the 2000 USGS estimate of 239 MGD withdrawn by domestic users (an estimated 2.8 million people relying upon private wells). Estimating water use in the United States: A new paradigm for the National Water-Use Information Program. Equating water withdrawals with water use is misleading when not all water withdrawn reaches its intended user. ถูกใจ 4.6 แสน คน. Water withdrawals reported by Michigan may over- or under-estimate actual water use for a number of reasons. Most of the water withdrawn (87 percent) was taken from the Great Lakes (Figure 1). For example, non-community public water supply systems (below the capacity threshold) are not required to report withdrawals. As part of i. mplementing the Compact and facilitating water resource management in Michigan, additions to Michigan’s body of water law require that all water users who withdraw on average more than 100,000 gallons per day over any consecutive 30-day period report annually the amount of water withdrawn from surface water or groundwater sources. Surface water sources include the Great Lakes and inland lakes and streams. Saichon Seedang, Maintaining accurate information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. In this document, we review water use by principal user categories in Michigan and the ways in which that use is measured or estimated and reported. The actual number of facilities withdrawing water directly from the Great Lakes is relatively small; most of the water taken from the Great Lakes is used by a few thermoelectric power plants. Coefficients are calculated periodically based on data collected by a few self-supplied users who have measured withdrawals and return flows or by public supply facilities that have measured and/or estimated deliveries, releases to sewage-treatment facilities, leakages, in-flows and return flows. Aranda was named after the orchid, Aranda Lee Kuan Yew and serves the school in its admissions application process. (2007). In-stream use (also called non-withdrawal use or in-channel use) – water that is used, but not withdrawn, from a surface water source for purposes such as hydroelectric power generation, navigation, water quality improvement, fish propagation and recreation. The USGS applies a per capita use coefficient of 86.3 gallons per capita per day2 to the domestic use population to estimate total water use by this sector. Consumptive-use coefficients for agriculture (irrigation and livestock uses) are the largest compared to other uses. Apply to # LKYSPP to learn from the best: https://lkyspp.sg/3nMvA3A See More Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning for economic development, land use and ecosystem protection. Consumptive-use coefficients by water-use category for the Great Lake Basin. Saichon Seedang was formerly a visiting assistant professor with the Guyer-Seevers Program in Natural Resource Conservation; Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies; Michigan State University and is now a senior research fellow, Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy; National University of Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy Part of the National University of Singapore, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKY School) was established in 2004 with the mission of educating and inspiring current and future generations of leaders to raise the standards of governance in Asia. Irrigation uses are divided into agricultural irrigation and irrigation of golf courses. 469C Bukit Timah Road. 2004 estimated water withdrawals for agricultural irrigation in Michigan, by county. Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power generation in Michigan 2006. “An open cooling system, such as once-through cooling, withdraws water continuously from a natural water body, circulates the water through condensers in the plant once to remove waste heat, then discharges the water back into a receiving water body. Michigan, along with the other 49 states, reports water withdrawal data to the USGS every five years. (1990). This category of users withdrew 250.3 MGD or about 2.2 percent of total water withdrawn by all major sectors. However, public suppliers often cannot determine with certainty how many of their customers are households and how many are other types of users, such as businesses. National University of Singapore. Their summary provided the values reported in Table 1. (2004). The MDEQ provides the water withdrawal data collected to the USGS National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) and to the Great Lakes Commission for its annual Great Lakes Regional Water Use Database. Although most industries in Michigan receive water from public suppliers, there are some industrial self-supplied facilities. The 1990 Census of Population and Housing included information on the number of households relying upon private wells5 , but that data series was discontinued with the 2000 Census. Conveyance loss – water that is lost in transit from a pipe, canal, conduit or ditch by leakage or evaporation. 443K likes. Source: Data reported in or calculated based on MDEG (2006). 2 The per capita use coefficient of 86.3 gallons per capita per day is adapted from a 1999 study of publicly supplied residential use conducted by the American Water Works Association (Mayer et al., 1999, as cited by Luukkonen, personal communication, 2008). Of the total 290.3 MGD of water withdrawn for irrigation use in 2004, 88 percent was for agriculture. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Off-stream use (also called withdrawal use) – water withdrawn or diverted from groundwater or surface water sources for aquaculture, commercial, domestic self-supply, industrial, irrigation, livestock, mining, public supply, thermoelectric power and other uses. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. The USGS adds estimates for categories of users not reported by the states and publishes its report every five years as part of the National Water Use Information Program. Generally, the water is not available for further use; however, leakage from an irrigation ditch, for example, may percolate to groundwater and be available for further use. We summarize the methods used to compile water-use information and discuss ways in which actual water withdrawals may be over or under reported. Total withdrawals for irrigation were only about three percent of thermoelectric withdrawals. The large range of consumptiveuse coefficient values for livestock reflects the large number of animal species included and substantial differences in how water is used for different species and different production practices. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapur. Major outdoor uses include watering lawns and gardens. The Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) was established in 1988 as an independent think-tank to study and generate public policy ideas in Singapore. Golf course irrigators with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD report withdrawals to the MDEQ. (U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200). (1999). Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Also, creating and maintaining an inventory of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great Lakes–St. Retrieved from www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7- 135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurp-Golf2004. Another category of water use that is not inventoried is withdrawals for livestock production that are below the capacity threshold. 469C Bukit Timah Road. The Hinrich Foundation Sustainable Trade Index 2020, commissioned to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), examines the role of sustainable trade for … Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). Methods applied by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) add domestic uses of residential wells to the mix; the additional 250 million gallons per day (MGD) withdrawn from residential wells brings the total estimated water withdrawals for 2004 to 11,198MGD or more than four trillion total gallons. (Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5197). 469C Bukit Timah Road. (2006). Those 44 plants withdrew a total of 8,885 MGD, with the majority of water withdrawn from the Great Lakes (95 percent). The MDEQ report of 2004 water withdrawals describes three types of cooling systems: open, closed and combination. While the NWUIP has established a standard procedure for states to use in reporting water use, wide variability exists among the states across user definitions, reporting requirements and estimation methods. Because data on return flows and conveyance losses is problematic, consumptive use is generally estimated with consumptive-use coefficients. We first clarify how the terms water use and water withdrawal are used in Michigan’s Water Use Reporting Program and by other entities that compile and report water-use information. This means that, besides domestic users, a number of other types of water uses in Michigan are not reported and, as a result, not included in Michigan’s annual water withdrawal summaries. The MDEQ collects water withdrawal information from all public water suppliers and from self-supplied users with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 gallons per day (GPD) over any consecutive 30-day period. In 2018, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy's External Affairs and Marketing team Social Media team launched a Facebook Chatbot named Aranda. In addition, many domestic wells supply water for livestock-related purposes in addition to indoor and outdoor household uses. A summary of water withdrawals by category of user and water source is shown in Table 2. 406 likes. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey. Telephone: +65 6601 6254 (Graduate Programmes) +65 6601 5503 (Executive Education) Email: decb64_bGt5c3BwQG51cy5lZHUuc2c=_decb64 (General enquiries or feedback) Author: The model, developed by the MDEQ, the MDA and Michigan State University (MSU), uses county-level data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture for irrigated farms greater than 14 acres, and local weather and soils data (MDEQ, 2006). Also, creating and maintaining an inventory of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great Lakes–St. Collect or report information about domestic water use in Michigan water use for a number of.. Suppliers supported 7.2 million persons in 2004 ( MDEQ ), K.S., Lumia,,... ( 95 percent ) was taken from the Great Lakes, inland Lakes streams... Compact ( the Compact ) industries in Michigan 2004 the national water-use information discuss! 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